Mark Sisco, M.D.
501 Skokie Boulevard
Northbrook, IL 60062
Phone: (847) 504-2333
Monday: 8:30 a.m.–6 p.m.
Tuesday–Friday: 8:30 a.m.–5 p.m.
Mark Sisco, M.D.
Dr. Mark Sisco combines a lifelong passion for medicine with a refined sense of aesthetic harmony as a board-certified plastic surgeon in the North Shore area. At his Northbrook plastic surgery practice, Dr. Sisco sees men and women of all ages, lifestyles, and body types and strives to exceed their expectations with exceptional outcomes.
A Lifelong Passion for Helping People
The idea that science could be directly applied to help people appealed to Dr. Sisco at a very young age. He’s translated that interest into a plastic surgery career that includes training at some of the nation’s most renowned medical centers and a position as the Chief of Plastic Surgery at NorthShore University HealthSystem.
Dr. Sisco’s impressive educational background and professional accomplishments are unsurpassed among North Shore plastic surgeons. After obtaining a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Columbia University, Dr. Sisco earned his medical degree from Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. He remained at Northwestern to complete a plastic and reconstructive surgery residency, where he served as administrative chief resident.
Dr. Sisco then honed his expertise in reconstructive breast surgery and microsurgery through a fellowship at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, working alongside some of the world’s leading oncologists and surgeons.
Leadership Roles and Research
From studying the science of scar formation and development in a clinical setting to publishing several textbook chapters and journal articles regarding both aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Dr. Sisco remains actively dedicated to improving the technical craft of plastic surgery.
Additionally, he spends much of his own time serving on committees tasked with improving surgical quality, including with the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), the Kellogg Cancer Center, and NorthShore University HealthSystem. He recently attended the annual American Society of Breast Surgeons meeting where he was the resident plastic surgery expert.
Dr. Sisco was recently interviewed by the Washington Post about the safety of textured breast implants. Click to read the full article.
Dr. Sisco is very professional. He took his time to explain what the procedure was going to be. Very bright. I think he is awesome, fit right in with NorthShore. I had a great team throughout the surgery.
A Candid Q&A With Dr. Sisco
In his own words, Dr. Sisco describes his path to plastic surgery and how he evaluates the results of surgical procedures he performs.
What led you to pursue a medical career and, later, to choose plastic surgery?
Growing up, I always had a passion for medicine. The notion that science could be directly applied to help people in need was very appealing. My early interests were in heart and trauma surgery—these seemed to be the most immediately gratifying surgical fields. Plastic surgery, however, attracted me because of its more unique aspects. Only in plastic surgery can I apply technical skill, creativity, and an aesthetic sense to directly improve my patients’ lives. I find this intensely gratifying.
Is having an art background important to your plastic surgery success?
I don’t necessarily think someone needs to be an artist to be a good plastic surgeon, buy one does need a sense of design, which is informed by aesthetics. Design requires attention to both form and function. Function is easily taught in medical school. Form is not. My training in the arts helped me master proportion, scale, and shape. This training constantly guides the decisions I make as a plastic surgeon, whether I am reconstructing a complex cancer defect or performing an aesthetic procedure.
Please describe some of the most important changes in plastic surgery you’ve seen.
While perceptions of beauty have changed little, research and technology have enabled us to provide more consistent results with greater safety than ever before. For example, we now have many more choices for breast implants than ever before. This means I can tailor a breast augmentation procedure to the cosmetic wishes of each patient. The development of minimally invasive procedures is another significant change. We can now offer more subtle enhancements with less cost and downtime.
What do you consider exceptional results for one of your patients?
Achieving the exceptional result is about exceeding expectations, not only in terms of the aesthetic outcome, but also the patient experience. It involves making sure that the chosen procedure is aligned to my patient’s desires with respect to goals, risk, and recovery. It must incorporate communication, empathy, safety, and a clear understanding of the emotional and psychological needs of the patient. Finally, it requires accurate planning and meticulous execution.
- Bachelor of Arts in Art History, Columbia University
- Doctor of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Graduate Medical Education
- Intern and Resident, Department of Surgery, Northwestern University
- Resident, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Northwestern University
- Administrative chief resident, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Northwestern University
- Clinical fellow in microsurgery and breast reconstruction, Division of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Postdoctoral Research Training
- Research fellow, Wound Healing Research Laboratory, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
- 2010 to present, American Board of Plastic Surgery
Professional Memberships & Affiliations
- Fellow of the American College of Surgeons
- Member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- Member of the American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery
Professional & Scientific Service
- 2005, peer reviewer, Wound Repair and Regeneration
- 2011, peer reviewer, Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- 2010 to present, peer reviewer, Journal of Surgical Research
- 2014 to present, peer reviewer, Journal of Surgical Oncology
- 2015 to present, editorial board member, Journal of Surgical Oncology
- 2017, peer reviewer, Cancer Control
- 2017, editorial board member and peer reviewer, Microsurgery
Academic & Clinical Appointments
- 2015 to present, Chief, Division of Plastic Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2015 to present, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago
- 2010 to 2015, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago
- 2009 to present, Senior Attending Physician, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2008 to 2009, Clinical Instructor, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
- 2007 to 2008, Clinical Instructor, Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
- 2015 to present, Surgical Executive Committee, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2015 to present, Program Committee, Breast Subsection, American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- 2014 to present, OR Committee, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2013 to present, Surgical Quality Committee, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2012 to present, Breast Quality Improvement Subcommittee, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2012 to present, Specialty Care Practice Network Committee, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2011 to present, Breast Program Leadership Committee, Kellogg Cancer Center, NorthShore University HealthSystem
- 2011 to 2015, Physician Engagement & Communications Committee, NorthShore University HealthSystem Medical Group
- 2011 to 2013, Coding and Payment Policy Committee, American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- 2011 to 2013, In-Service Examination Committee, American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- 1996 to 2000, Executive Curriculum Committee, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
- 2015 to present, Medical Advisory Board, Emmi Solutions, Chicago, IL
- 2009 to 2010, consultant, Excaliard Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, CA
Honors & Awards
- 2011, Scientific Exhibit of Exceptional Merit, American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress
- 2008, Edelstone-Bendix Chief Resident Research Prize, Northwestern University
- 2000, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society
- 1996, Columbia College, cum laude in Art History
- 2015, Mustoe TA, Dean NM, Sisco M, Kryger Z, Bennett FC. “Method for Reducing Scarring During Wound Healing Using Antisense Compounds Directed to CTGF.” U.S. Patent 8,946,172, issued February 3, 2015.
- 2010, Dean NM, Mustoe TA, Sisco M, Kryger Z, Bennett FC. “Method for Reducing Scarring During Wound Healing Using Antisense Compounds Directed to CTGF” (WO/2010/027831)
- 2017, Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF), Edison, NJ, “A Prospective, Randomized Multi-Center Clinical Study Comparing Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Prosthetic Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) Assisted Immediate Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction,” Primary Investigator
- 2014, NorthShore University HealthSystem Breast and Ovarian Research Program Concept/Pilot Award. “Does Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy Improve Satisfaction and Pychosocial Health?” Co-Primary Investigator, $31,239
- 2000 to 2001, Buehler Center on Aging, Northwestern University. “A Gene Array Assay of Wound Healing in an Aged Ischemic Model.” Co-Investigator, $13,000
- 2000 to 2001, American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. “Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Human Scarring.” Co-Investigator, $8,000
- 1997, Northwestern University Medical School Summer Research Fellowship. “Arterial Base Deficit as a Predictor of Resuscitation in Septic Patients.” Student Investigator, $2,500
Original, Peer-Reviewed Research Articles
- Mogford JE, Sisco M, Bonomo SR, Robinson AM, and Mustoe TA: “Impact of Aging on Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Ischemic Cutaneous Wound Healing.” J Surg Res. 2004;118(2):190-6. (co-first author)
- Sisco M, Liu WR, Kryger ZB, and Mustoe TA: “Reduced Up-Regulation of Cytoprotective Genes in Rat Cutaneous Tissue During the Second Cycle of Ischemia-Reperfusion.” Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(2):203-12.
- Kryger ZB, Sisco M, Roy N, Lu L, Rosenberg D, and Mustoe TA: “The Temporal Expression of the TGF-beta Pathway in the Rabbit Ear Model of Wound Healing and Scarring.” J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205(1):78-88.
- Sisco M, Chao JD, Kim I, Mogford JE, Mayadas TN, and Mustoe TA: “Delayed Wound Healing in Mac-1–Deficient Mice Is Associated with Normal Monocyte Recruitment.” Wound Repair Regen. 2007;15(4):566-71.
- Brown RJ, Lee MJ, Sisco M, Kim JY, Roy N, and Mustoe TA: “High-Dose Ultraviolet Light Exposure Reduces Scar Hypertrophy in a Rabbit Ear Model.” Plast Recon Surg. 2008;121(4):1165-72.
- Sisco M, Kryger ZB, O’Shaughnessy KD, Kim PS, Schultz GS, Ding XZ, Roy NK, Dean NM, and Mustoe TA: “Antisense Inhibition of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) mRNA Limits Hypertrophic Scarring Without Affecting Wound Healing in Vivo.” Wound Repair Regen. 2008;16(5):661-73.
- Sisco M, Du H, Warner JP, Howard MA, Winchester DP, Yao K: “Have We Expanded the Equitable Delivery of Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction in the New Millennium? Evidence From the National Cancer Data Base.” J Am Coll Surg. 2012;215(5):658-66.
- Rundell V, Beck R, Wang E, Gutowski K, Sisco M, Fenner G, Howard M: “Complication Outcomes of Tutoplast-Derived Human Acellular Dermal Matrix (NeoForm and Allomax) in Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction.” J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Oct;67(10):1345-51.
- Yao K, Liederbach E, Tang R, Lei L, Czechra T, Sisco M, Howard M, Hulick P, Weissman S, Winchester DJ, Coopey SB, Smith BL: “Nipple Sparing Mastectomy In Brca1/2 Mutation Carriers: An Interim Analysis And Review Of The Literature.” Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Feb;22(2):370-6.
- Butz D, Lapin B, Wang C, Yao K, Johnson D, Song D, Sisco M: “Age Is a Predictor of 30-Day Complications After Autologous but Not Implant-Based Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction” Plast Recon Surg. 2015 Feb;135(2):253e-61e.
- Liederbach E, Sisco M, Wang C, Pesce C, MD, Sharpe S, Winchester DJ, Yao K: “Wait Times for Breast Surgical Operations, 2003-2011: A Report from the National Cancer Data Base.” Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Mar;22(3):899-907.
- Sisco M, Johnson DB, Wang C, Rasinski K, Rundell VL, and Yao K: “The Quality-of-Life Benefits of Breast Reconstruction Do Not Diminish with Age.” J Surg Oncol. 2015 May;111(6):663-8.
- Johnson DB, Lapin, B, Wang C, Yao K, Rasinski K, Rundell VL, and Sisco M: “Age Does Not Affect Perceptions of Recovery or Long Term Chest and Upper Body Morbidity After Post-Mastectomy Breast Reconstruction.” Ann Plast Surg. 2016 Feb;76(2):164-9.
- Butz D, Shenaq DS, Keppler B, Rundell VL, Murphy G, Thiel J, Sisco M, Pesce C, Howard M: “Use of Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel™) Is Associated with Reduced Pain and Length of Stay after Mastectomy with Implant-Based Reconstruction.” Plast Recon Surg Global Open. 2015 May;3(5):391-5.
- Silva A, Lapin A, Yao K, Song D, Sisco M: “The Effect of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy on Perioperative Complications. A NSQIP Analysis.” Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 Oct;22(11):3474-80.
- Yao K, Belkora J, Sisco M, Rosenberg S, Bedrosian I, Liederbach E, Wang C. “Surgeon Deficits in Knowledge of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: A Survey.” JAMA Surg. 2016 Apr 1;151(4):391-3.
- Howard MA, Sisco M, Yao K, Winchester DJ, Barrera E, Warner J, Jaffe J, Hulick P, Kuchta K, Pusic AL, Sener SF: Patient Satisfaction with Nipple-sparing Mastectomy: A Prospective Study of Patient Reported Outcomes Using the BREAST-Q. J Surg Oncol. 2016 Sep;114(4):416-22.
- Sisco M, Kyrillos AM, Lapin BR, Wang CE, Yao KA: “Trends and Variation in the Use of Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy for Breast Cancer in the United States.” Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Nov;160(1):111-120.
- Yao KA, Belkora J, Bedrosian I, Rosenberg S, Sisco M, Barrera E, Kyrillios A, Tilburt J, Wang C, Rabbitt S, Pesce C, Simovic S, Winchester SJ, Sepucha K: “Impact of an In-visit Decision Aid on Patient Knowledge about Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: A Pilot Study.” Ann Surg Oncol. 2017 Jan;24(1):91-99.
Reviews, Chapters, Books
- Sisco M and Mustoe TA: “Animal Models of Ischemic Wound Healing. Toward an Approximation of Human Chronic Cutaneous Ulcers in the Rabbit and Rat.” Methods Mol Med. 2003;78:55-65.
- Kryger ZB and Sisco M, Eds.: Practical Plastic Surgery. Austin: Landes Bioscience, 2007.
- Sisco M and Bauer BS: “Craniofacial Syndromes and Sequences.” In Bentz ML, Bauer BS, and Zucker R, Eds.: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Plastic Surgery. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 2007.
- Sisco M and Disa JJ: “Mandible Reconstruction.” In Marsh J and Perlyn C, Eds.: Decision Making in Plastic Surgery. St. Louis: Quality Medical Publishing, 2010.
- Yao K, Sisco M, Bedrosian I: “Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: Current Perspectives.” Int J Womens Health. 2016 Jun 22;8:213-23.
- Sisco M, Yao KA: “Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: A Contemporary Perspective.” J Surg Oncol. 2016 Jun;113(8):883-90.
- Teven CM, Schmid DB, Sisco M, Ward J, Howard MA: “Systemic Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: What the Plastic Surgeon Should Know.” Eplasty. 2017 Jan 17;71-86.
Case Reports, Technical Notes, Discussions, Letters
- Sisco M and Dumanian GA: “A Simple Technique to Anchor Prosthetic Mesh to Bone.” Plast Recon Surg. 2005;116(7):2059-60.
- Sisco M and Dumanian GA: Invited Discussion of “Salvaging Limbs in Cases of Severe Purpura Fulminans: Advantages of Free Flaps.” Plast Recon Surg. 2006;118(3):686-7.
- Erickson BA, Dumanian GA, Sisco M, Jang TL, Halverson AL, and Gonzalez CM: “Rectourethral Fistula Associated with Two Short Segment Urethral Strictures in the Anterior and Posterior Urethra: Single-Stage Reconstruction Using Buccal Mucosa and a Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free Flap.” Urology. 2006;67(1):195-8.
- Sisco M and Dumanian GA: “Anterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome Following Shoulder Arthroscopy. A Report of Three Cases.” J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(2):392-5.
- Sisco M and Dumanian GA: “The Implantable Venous Doppler for Perforator Flap Monitoring: Report of a False-Negative Signal.” Plast Recon Surg. 2008;121(4):223e-4e.
- Sisco M and Disa JJ: Invited Discussion of “NPWT I: The Paradox of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy.” Plast Recon Surg. 2009; 123(2):599-600.
- MacIver RH, Sundaresan S, DeHoyos AL, Sisco M, and Blum MG: “Mucosal Tube Technique for Creation of Esophageal Anastomosis after Esophagectomy.” Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(6):1703-7.
- Sisco M and Warner JP: “Refinements in Anchoring the Gracilis Muscle for Facial Reanimation.” Plast Recon Surg. 2013:131(5)857e-858e.
- Alkureishi LWT, Bhayani MK, Sisco M: “Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap for a Total Parotidectomy Defect.” Eplasty. 2017 Dec 18;17:e38
- Zhao Y, Sisco M, Mogford J, and Mustoe TA: “Effects of Ischemia on a Model of Non-Contractile Cutaneous Wound Healing in the Rat.” Oral Presentation. Wound Healing Society Annual Meeting, Toronto, June 2000.
- Sisco M, Mogford JE, Robinson AM, Zhao Y, and Mustoe TA: “Gene Array Analysis of the Impact of Aging and Ischemia on Wound Healing in Rats.” Oral Presentation. Wound Healing Society Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, NM, June 2001.
- Sisco M, Chao J, Kim I, Mayadas-Norton T, Mogford JE, and Mustoe TA: “Delayed Wound Healing in Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) Integrin Knockout Mice.” Oral Presentation. Wound Healing Society Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, NM, June 2001.
- Cross KJ, Sisco M, Mogford J, and Mustoe TA. “A Novel Ischemic Wound Healing Model in the Rat: a Bipedicled Back Flap with Internal Controls.” Oral Presentation. Wound Healing Society Annual Meeting, June 2002.
- Kryger ZB, Sisco M, Roy NK, and Mustoe TA: “The Temporal mRNA Expression of the TGF-Beta Pathway in the Rabbit Ear Model of Hypertrophic Scarring.” Poster Presentation. Plastic Surgery Research Council, Toronto, May 2005. Wound Rep Regen 13(2), A4-27.
- Kryger ZB, Sisco M, Lu WR, and Mustoe TA: “Attenuated Stress- and Hypoxia-Driven Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Repetitive Cutaneous Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury” Oral Presentation. American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress, San Francisco, October 2005. J Am Coll Surg 201(3), S58-9.
- Sisco M, Kryger ZB, Jia SX, Schultz GS, Dean NM, and Mustoe TA: “Antisense Oligonucleotides Against Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Delay Wound Healing in a Rabbit Ear Model.” Oral Presentation. American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress, San Francisco, October 2005. J Am Coll Surg 201(3), S60.
- Sisco M, Kryger ZB, Schultz GS, Roy NK, Dean N, and Mustoe TA: “Antisense Inhibition of Connective Tissue Growth Factor Limits Hypertrophic Scarring In Vivo: Evidence for a Specific Target to Reduce Fibrosis.” Oral Presentation. Plastic Surgery Research Council, Dana Point, CA, May 2006.
- Sisco M and Dumanian GA: “The Oblique Rectus Abdominis Myocutaeous Flap for Vaginal Reconstruction.” Oral Presentation. Midwestern Association of Plastic Surgeons, Chicago, May 2007.
- Sisco M, Du H, Howard MA, Warner JP, Gutowski KA, Song DH, Winchester DJ, Winchester DP, and Yao K: “Have We Expanded the Equitable Delivery of Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction in the New Millenium? Evidence from the National Cancer Data Base.” Scientific Exhibit of Exceptional Merit. American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress, San Francisco, October 2011.
- Spiguel L, Yao K, Du H, Martz B, Turk M, Howard M, Sisco M, Warner J, Winchester DP, Sener S, and Winchester DJ: “Nipple Sparing Mastectomy: An Option for Cancer Treatment and Risk Reduction.” Oral Presentation. Society of Surgical Oncology Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, March 2011.
- Sisco M: “Alloplastic Breast Reconstruction following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.” Oral Presentation. Chicago Breast Reconstruction Symposium, Chicago, September 2012.
- Sisco M, Johnson DB, Wang CE, and Yao KA: “Do older women benefit from post-mastectomy breast reconstruction?” Poster Presentation. San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, December 2013. Cancer Research 73 (24 Supp.), P2-19-02.
- Liederbach E, Pesce C, Sisco M, Winchester DJ, Yao K: “Wait Times for Breast Cancer Surgery, 2003-2010: A Report from the National Cancer Database.” Society of Surgical Oncology Cancer Symposium, Phoenix, March 2014. Ann Surg Oncol 21, S64.
- Nocon C, Liederbach E, Sisco M, Yao K, Gerber ME, Lewis CM, Bhayani MK: “Factors Affecting Delays to Surgery for Oral Tongue Carcinoma in the National Cancer Data Base.” Oral Presentation. AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting, Orlando, September 2014. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 151:1 S56.
- Johnson D, Lapin B, Wang C, Yao K, Sisco M: “Does age predict perceptions of recovery and long-term chest and upper body morbidity after postmastectomy breast reconstruction?” Poster Presentation. ASCO Breast Cancer Symposium, San Francisco, September 2014.
- Silva S, Lapin B, Yao K, Song D, Sisco M: “A NSQIP analysis of 30-day complications after bilateral versus unilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction.” Oral Presentation. ASCO Breast Cancer Symposium, San Francisco, September 2014. J Clin Oncol 32, 2014 (suppl 26; abstr 62).
- Butz D, Shenaq DS, Rundell VL, Kepler B, Liderbach E, Thiel J, Pesce C, Murphy G, Sisco M, Howard MA: “Pain Control Using Liposomal Bupivacaine vs Bupivacaine Pain Pump and a Control Group in Implant Based Breast Reconstruction Patients.” Oral Presentation. American Association of Plastic Surgeons, Scottsdale, April 2015.
- Yao K, Rosenberg S, Belkora J, Sisco M, Novotny P, Liederbach E, Sepucha K, Tilburt J, Rabbitt S, Bedrosian I. “Knowledge Deficits and Concern about Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk: a Prospective Study.” Poster Presentation. Society of Surgical Oncology, Houston, March 2015. Chosen as one of the top five high-scoring posters.
- Chicago Rhinoplasty Symposium. NorthShore University HealthSystem. Evanston, IL. May 2010.
- Incorporating Nipple Sparing Mastectomy (NSM) Into Your Practice. American Society of Plastic Surgeons Annual Meeting. Toronto. October 2010.
- Chicago Rhinoplasty Symposium. NorthShore University HealthSystem. Evanston, IL. May 2011.
- Comprehensive Approach to Nipple Sparing Mastectomy. American Society of Plastic Surgeons Annual Meeting. Denver. September 2011.
- Chicago Rhinoplasty Symposium. NorthShore University HealthSystem. Evanston, IL. January 2012.
- Comprehensive Approach to Nipple Sparing Mastectomy. American Society of Plastic Surgeons Annual Meeting. San Diego. September 2013.